Past Studies related to wound recovery have mainly focused on macrophages by beta glucan. A 1997 in-vivo study conducted by Portera et al. revealed that after adding water soluble glucan phosphate into the wounds at the back and intestine of post-surgical rats, not only did the elasticity of the tissues around the surgical region increases, but the surrounding collagen proteins were also stimulated into greater production.  Therefore, it was then hypothesized that water soluble beta glucan can trigger macrophages to indirectly increase the regeneration of collagen protein production, in turn improving the outcome of skin rejuvenation.

The hypothesis was further validated by years of studies, confirming that upon stimulation of fibroblasts by beta-D-glucan, the immune response around the testing tissues can be fortified via the activation of NF-κB signal pathway and NF-1 secondary messenger cascade.  Similarly, such mechanism stimulates the production of many cytokine and pro-collagen gene expression, resulting in the synthesis of collagen, in turns improving outcomes of skin rejuvenation.

The mechanisms of mushroom beta glucan on skin protection is summarized in the following figures. Please note that, due to the complexity of the ingredients in medicinal mushrooms, it is recommended that manufacturers use purified mushroom derived beta 1,3; 1,6 D-glucan to ensure the best result of the final formulation.